The Idea Blog: Poverty

Upon reflecting on the potential topics listed for further individual investigation for this task, the subject involving ‘Poverty’ caught my curiosity. Without the luxury of context or an indication as to where exactly I could take this broad concept, I had to lean upon my own personal concerns regarding the topic in relation to communication and media. In doing so, I realised that it is apparent that there is a “Digital Divide” in Australia. This means that poor social and economic conditions limit access to communication technologies, which is an issue because those that have the most to gain from the resources that technologies such as the internet, provide – are at a disadvantage because they do not have the ability to access the benefits of media and communications technology. (Thomas, Wilson and Park, 2018) Instead of a digital economy designed for everyone, we appear to have created a highly stratified Internet, where the distribution of resources and opportunities online reflects Australia’s larger social and economic inequalities. The number of people using the Internet is not growing and the basic parameters of digital inequality in Australia – age, geography, education and income – continue to define access to and use of online resources. (Thomas, Wilson and Park, 2018)

Within this group of disadvantaged people, there is a further minority of which I will attempt to take a closer glimpse at in the context of this task. Indigenous Australians in remote communities suffer the most at the hands of this ‘Digital Divide’. Less than 77% of individuals in these remote Indigenous communities have access to Information Communication Technologies. However, despite the acknowledgement of a definite digital divide in the Australian Indigenous context, it is suggested by Carlson that the rapid advances in mobile technologies and the online environment have quickly been adapted by Aboriginal Youth (Carlson, 2013) in order to maintain their cultures, communicate and archive knowledge, empower their communities and develop skills to generate income in order to exit the poverty cycle. (Singleton, Rola-Rubzen, Muir & McGregor, 2009) She claims that social media acts as a vehicle for self-representation and provides an environment where personal identity can be tested and accepted and where a connection between the individual identity and collective Indigenous identity can develop. (Carlson, 2013)

In taking in all of the information that I have accumulated in regards to the issue of Communication and Media use by people who are impoverished, I have formulated a research question that focuses on a specific problem affecting a specific demographic:

 “Do people in remote Indigenous communities engage with social media in order to communicate their struggles with poverty and disadvantage?”

Communication technologies and social media can help Indigenous people in remote communities to mobilise resources, share information, and improve work related efficiency, improve educational outcomes, overcome remoteness and isolation, pursue recognition of rights to land and participation in negotiations with mining companies and government departments in order to negotiate and or reaffirm relationships that may be in tension with some of the longer standing traditional authority structures in their society. (Singleton, Rola-Rubzen, Muir & McGregor, 2009)

Building off of the claim that communication technologies provide the resources for disadvantaged people to potentially emancipate themselves from their position of detriment; it is discussed in “Youth Empowerment & Information Communication Technologies”, that media gives a voice to the voiceless. Having access to communication technologies aids in overcoming language and literacy barriers, facilitates intergenerational knowledge transfer, promotes empowerment and social participation which can lead to improvements in Indigenous health, education and economic development. Information Communication Technologies can also be a major tool for democratisation, advocacy and decentralisation for people living in remote Indigenous communities. (Singleton, Rola-Rubzen, Muir & McGregor, 2009).

Indigenous youth in rural and remote Australia utilise social media to air their thoughts and the cultural activities and concerns of their community. Social media as a ‘new frontier’ is where Aboriginal people are busy seeking new ways of representing and identifying themselves in a global amphitheatre. (Carlson, 2013) Empowerment is recognised as one of the three pillars of poverty reduction and this social political influence and ‘agency’ approach to empowerment suggests a shift of power to the powerless that allows them to bring their issues to the surface of the political, social and cultural agenda. (Singleton, Rola-Rubzen, Muir & McGregor, 2009) Aboriginal people are online and social media is a political site for Indigenous individuals to play out their struggles and identities. (Carlson, 2013) If the digital divide can be successfully combatted in the near future, potentially, Indigenous people from remote communities would benefit greatly as their ability to voice their struggles will be increased tenfold.


Carlson, B. (2013). The ‘new frontier’: Emergent Indigenous identities and social media. In M. Harris, M. Nakata & B. Carlson (Eds.), The Politics of Identity: Emerging Indigeneity (pp. 147-168). Sydney: University of Technology Sydney E-Press

Singleton, G., Rola-Rubzen, M., Muir, K., Muir, D. and McGregor, M. (2009). Youth empowerment and information and communication technologies: a case study of a remote Australian Aboriginal community. GeoJournal, 74(5), pp.403-413.

Thomas, J., Wilson, C. and Park, S. (2018). Australia’s digital divide is not going away. [online] The Conversation. Available at: [Accessed 15 Mar. 2019].




Kang, K. (2017). Hye Seung Chung and David Scott Diffrient, Movie Migrations: Transnational Genre Flows and South Korean Cinema. Film Criticism, [online] 41(3). Available at: [Accessed 24 Aug. 2018].

This article is a book review on a source that examines the South Korean film industry and the cultural influences that have an effect on the types of pieces that are being generated for public consumption. This article is heavily focussed on the terms that describe the class of South Korean film media:

“To capture the protean nature of Korean cinema, the authors prefer the term “migration” to “translation” or “hybridity,” underscoring the dialectical nature of Korean films, which trade on such hybrid processes as transmedia adaptation and implicate multiculturalism and globalization.”

Kang discusses the links that Hollywood film and American culture has had on influencing the South Korean entertainment industry and the way that this system of appropriation has acted as an escape or a band aid to the trauma that the South Korean population has endured in the past due to a complicated reality created by war and unrest in the region.
This source fits into the literature because it addresses the multifaceted nature of Korean cinema and the reasons why it is so unique and popular. I think that it will be useful to look at when discussing the influences of globalisation on the ways particular cultures present media and forge a national identity through this process. This source presents limitations in the way that it is only a review of a valuable source, so a lot of the information available is second hand which makes it complicated to get a complete grasp on what is being said in the article.


Tsaaior, J. (2018). “New” Nollywood video Films and the Post/Nationality of Nigeria’s Film Culture. Research in African Literatures, [online] 49(1), pp.145-162. Available at: [Accessed 20 Aug. 2018].

This article aims to explore the transformation that Nigerian film has endured since the 90’s and the improvement and global recognition that the genre has received in recent years.

This article goes into depth about the conversation surrounding nationalism and what constitutes a nation as well as the cultural values that go along with this concept. Nigeria is a nation that has struggled in the past with promoting the character of its country and “Nollywood” has been an effective means to boost Nigeria’s national identity and have their art and cultural scene be displayed in a global context. Nigerian cinema has been used as a Segway into talking about national identities and culture has helped the Nigerian population find pride and belonging within their nation. This source is useful when looking at the ways media plays an important role in the formation of individual and national identity.

This is an up to date source from 2018, which increases its credibility and makes it very useful when looking at film culture from different nationalities. This article is also very comprehensive so it is very useful in gaining a thorough and informed perspective on the subject at hand.

BCM111: Internationalising Higher Education

Healey, N. (2007). Is higher education in really ‘internationalising’?. Higher Education, [online] 55(3), pp.333-355. Available at: [Accessed 23 Aug. 2018].


This source talks about the business of internationalising higher education and how universities are using globalisation as a way of increasing profits from international students as well as setting up campuses in foreign countries. The article outlines how tertiary education is following suit of the business sector in globalising as a result of advances in information and communication technologies. The fact that English is slowly becoming the most homogenous language in the world means that western universities can capitalise from opening up courses to international students. The article outlines the specific ways in which higher education is internationalising and the drivers behind a universities choice to internationalise. The article compares various regions to each in other in terms of the success of the programs. This article lacks in terms of describing the lived experiences of students who have participated in international higher education as it mostly focuses on the business and drive behind the decisions to participate in the internationalisation process. Another limitation with this article is that it was published over 10 years ago in 2007, which means that the information available is not current.



Nyland, C., Forbes-Mewett, H. and Härtel, C. (2013). Governing the International Student Experience: Lessons From the Australian International Education Model. Academy of Management Learning & Education, [online] 12(4), pp.656-673. Available at: [Accessed 23 Aug. 2018].


This source concerns the actual governing of the student experience of international higher education in the case of Australia and was published in 2013. This article tends to fill in the blanks that were missed out in the previous article and is mainly focused on the experiences of international students so using the two together helps to build a broader picture of the overall topic. This article is concerned with the issue of higher education being commercialized and the students have been looked at as consumers to further the profits of universities in Australia rather than scholars looking to broaden their perspectives in a foreign environment. This article goes into detail about the experiences international students had in Australia concerning; finances and healthcare, housing, safety and supportive infrastructure and the ways in which international students provided backlash to the Australian industry. The article provides a list of recommendations for other countries to employ if they wish to avoid the outcome of the Australian case. This source will prove useful in this course as it offers a perspective of internationalising higher education that paints the idea in a negative light and I believe it is important to gather different sources providing different view points. The article is easy to read and was published by scholars from two different Australian universities so the amount of bias seems to be minimised. I think that the key outtakes of this article are very important as they encourage the reader to think critically about the true intentions of higher education institutions and the need for a regulatory body to aid in governing the practices of these universities as well as to support international students and advocate for their rights.




Research Pitch: Past Vs. Present Media Use at Live Events

To what extent has the impact of modern media use influenced the ways in which we experience Live Events?

For as long as I have been going to Concerts and Live Events, there have been digital cameras or phones, to capture the moments and memories of what is taking place at that point in time. I went to my first concert with my older sisters in 2008, it was Chris Brown and Rihanna (before the whole domestic violence debacle) and I remember them texting on their phones, taking pictures with their digital cameras (the weapon of choice for getting that prime pic) and updating their Myspace profiles with dark, blurry photos taken from the nosebleed section. I can recall being annoyed that they weren’t paying full attention to the concert, but then calming down at the thought of having photographic evidence of such a cool experience to show my friends at primary school the next week. When I attend concerts now, I always catch myself whipping out my iPhone in order to catch a video of my favourite song to send to all of my friends or put it onto my SnapChat story – but every single time I get so frustrated with myself for fussing with my phone and not just enjoying the moment that I have spent a lot of time and money in order to be in.

When thinking about topics to research that would reflect the relationship that media has in space and the impact this can have on the way people interact with real life experiences, I immediately thought of that time in 2008, and consequently, every other concert I attended after it, because I have never been able to fully work out why it is that people, including myself I’ll shamefully admit, would rather spend the majority of their time watching a Live event through a device.

In Week 2 of this subject we participated in an ethnographic exercise, discussing television memories with older consultants, gaining an insight into the parts that media and technology have played throughout the course of history. I thoroughly enjoyed this research method and I intend to use it throughout the course of my investigation into the reasons and ways that people engage with media at live events. I would also like to incorporate traditional research techniques such as Surveys and perhaps even conduct a focus group if time allows.

In terms of defining a demographic for my research, I have come across a slight difficulty. My problem is that I would like to interview people from past generations and gain their perspective on engaging in live entertainment without the interference of modern media use and then compare it to the experience of attending a concert today. To do this I will need to consult individuals who have both had the benefit of attending concerts prior to the release of technology such as smartphones, tablets and digital cameras, and the luxury to do so in a modern or current context. I would also like to consult people from my own generation who have only ever known a time where instead of being told to “put your lighters in the air”, it’s been a polite request to “turn your phone’s onto flash”.




No Copyright Infringement Intended…

I got the idea for the case study for this week’s blog post when I decided it was about time I got my act together and downloaded Kanye West‘s latest album ‘The Life of Pablo‘, only to find that the only way I could even listen to it was if I subscribed to the music streaming app TIDAL. I had already used up my one month free trial ages ago and really didn’t want to give up my credit card details all for the sake of one album. I was so frustrated, why can’t I just buy the damn thing Kanye!?

Anyway, I did some research and found that he and his lawyers had actually launched a campaign against Pirate Bay for breach of copyright laws. So far no actual legal action has been taken and there is serious doubt as to if it ever will but it still adds to the constant buzz that surrounds well-known artists and the ways in which they try to combat copyright infringements. I made a Prezi (ironically riddled with copyright breaches) in order to further illustrate the case.


Audio used in Prezi: Power by Kanye West ,

Media Ownership: ‘No one man should have all that power.’


Rupert Murdoch

Australia has one of the highest levels of consolidated media ownership in the world. The lack of diversity in terms of where we are able to source our news is an issue that compromises the ideology that Australians live in a democratic country where freedom of information is a given. Media outlets have a duty to remain impartial in order to convey the truths of the world without the influence of ‘the great man‘.


The limited amount of perspectives that are represented within the Australian media poses a problem to audiences who need to form an opinion on contemporary subjects such as  Australian Politics for example.


This is a famous representation of control in the media. News Corp, owned by the notorious Rupert Murdoch, published this issue of the Daily Telegraph in relation to the September federal elections back in 2013. This kind of one-sided representation sways audiences in an obvious direction, and the means by which this is done is not subtle. For those who do not realise that their news sources are not being regulated and do not pick up on the fact that these privately owned media corporations are heavily interfering with what is being distributed to the public, the problem becomes real. The brainwashing of readers becomes all to easy as the fact that these representations are biased does not get exposed. Australia, in regards to media ownership, is becoming a state of deception. The above image can certainly be classed as political propaganda.

“Mr Murdoch is entitled to his own view… he owns 70% of the newspapers in this country.” said Former Prime Minister, Kevin Rudd, in a press conference on 6th August, 2013. 

Rupert Murdoch represents, for many, the abuse of media power that is so greatly feared within society, But does this only apply to somewhat primitive means of media and communication? I mean, Newspapers and News programs are mediums which are usually only accessed by older generations. The diversity, although it may not be in the ownership of the media, lies in the different and expanding social media platforms. Independently owned and run blogs, twitter accounts, facebook pages as well as other web pages have the potential to report on issues that are currently in the news without presenting bias or capitalist influence. Awareness of concentrated media ownership becomes spread through these mediums and promotes investigation into sources as well as teaches audiences to be weary of what it is that they are reading and to be mindful of where their information is coming from.

I personally source my news from radio updates on the government owned radio station Triple J, as well as through facebook posts by news outlets and more recently, blog posts on tumblr. I always try to question the credibility of sources as it’s important to know where our news is coming from and to remain knowledgeable of what is going on in the world.

I’ll leave this post with a very politically incorrect, but still chuckle-worthy video by Australian comedian Neel Kolhatkar displaying his interpretations of the Australian Media.