BCM111 WEEK 4: GLOBAL FILM INDUSTRIES

Kang, K. (2017). Hye Seung Chung and David Scott Diffrient, Movie Migrations: Transnational Genre Flows and South Korean Cinema. Film Criticism, [online] 41(3). Available at: https://eds-b-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=14&sid=6268037f-0bf0-4dea-8c1d-4eeaa0a20fa9%40pdc-v-sessmgr02 [Accessed 24 Aug. 2018].

This article is a book review on a source that examines the South Korean film industry and the cultural influences that have an effect on the types of pieces that are being generated for public consumption. This article is heavily focussed on the terms that describe the class of South Korean film media:

“To capture the protean nature of Korean cinema, the authors prefer the term “migration” to “translation” or “hybridity,” underscoring the dialectical nature of Korean films, which trade on such hybrid processes as transmedia adaptation and implicate multiculturalism and globalization.”

Kang discusses the links that Hollywood film and American culture has had on influencing the South Korean entertainment industry and the way that this system of appropriation has acted as an escape or a band aid to the trauma that the South Korean population has endured in the past due to a complicated reality created by war and unrest in the region.
This source fits into the literature because it addresses the multifaceted nature of Korean cinema and the reasons why it is so unique and popular. I think that it will be useful to look at when discussing the influences of globalisation on the ways particular cultures present media and forge a national identity through this process. This source presents limitations in the way that it is only a review of a valuable source, so a lot of the information available is second hand which makes it complicated to get a complete grasp on what is being said in the article.

 

Tsaaior, J. (2018). “New” Nollywood video Films and the Post/Nationality of Nigeria’s Film Culture. Research in African Literatures, [online] 49(1), pp.145-162. Available at: https://eds-b-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=4137c782-ee4f-4e97-bee9-b6e35c307850%40pdc-v-sessmgr04 [Accessed 20 Aug. 2018].

This article aims to explore the transformation that Nigerian film has endured since the 90’s and the improvement and global recognition that the genre has received in recent years.

This article goes into depth about the conversation surrounding nationalism and what constitutes a nation as well as the cultural values that go along with this concept. Nigeria is a nation that has struggled in the past with promoting the character of its country and “Nollywood” has been an effective means to boost Nigeria’s national identity and have their art and cultural scene be displayed in a global context. Nigerian cinema has been used as a Segway into talking about national identities and culture has helped the Nigerian population find pride and belonging within their nation. This source is useful when looking at the ways media plays an important role in the formation of individual and national identity.

This is an up to date source from 2018, which increases its credibility and makes it very useful when looking at film culture from different nationalities. This article is also very comprehensive so it is very useful in gaining a thorough and informed perspective on the subject at hand.

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BCM111: Internationalising Higher Education

Healey, N. (2007). Is higher education in really ‘internationalising’?. Higher Education, [online] 55(3), pp.333-355. Available at: https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=2abe6adb-f7af-438a-b3e7-128828936f34%40sessionmgr4010 [Accessed 23 Aug. 2018].

 

This source talks about the business of internationalising higher education and how universities are using globalisation as a way of increasing profits from international students as well as setting up campuses in foreign countries. The article outlines how tertiary education is following suit of the business sector in globalising as a result of advances in information and communication technologies. The fact that English is slowly becoming the most homogenous language in the world means that western universities can capitalise from opening up courses to international students. The article outlines the specific ways in which higher education is internationalising and the drivers behind a universities choice to internationalise. The article compares various regions to each in other in terms of the success of the programs. This article lacks in terms of describing the lived experiences of students who have participated in international higher education as it mostly focuses on the business and drive behind the decisions to participate in the internationalisation process. Another limitation with this article is that it was published over 10 years ago in 2007, which means that the information available is not current.

 

 

Nyland, C., Forbes-Mewett, H. and Härtel, C. (2013). Governing the International Student Experience: Lessons From the Australian International Education Model. Academy of Management Learning & Education, [online] 12(4), pp.656-673. Available at: https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=12&sid=7e6b6dda-b792-4225-b1aa-c98c1b0104b0%40sessionmgr4008 [Accessed 23 Aug. 2018].

 

This source concerns the actual governing of the student experience of international higher education in the case of Australia and was published in 2013. This article tends to fill in the blanks that were missed out in the previous article and is mainly focused on the experiences of international students so using the two together helps to build a broader picture of the overall topic. This article is concerned with the issue of higher education being commercialized and the students have been looked at as consumers to further the profits of universities in Australia rather than scholars looking to broaden their perspectives in a foreign environment. This article goes into detail about the experiences international students had in Australia concerning; finances and healthcare, housing, safety and supportive infrastructure and the ways in which international students provided backlash to the Australian industry. The article provides a list of recommendations for other countries to employ if they wish to avoid the outcome of the Australian case. This source will prove useful in this course as it offers a perspective of internationalising higher education that paints the idea in a negative light and I believe it is important to gather different sources providing different view points. The article is easy to read and was published by scholars from two different Australian universities so the amount of bias seems to be minimised. I think that the key outtakes of this article are very important as they encourage the reader to think critically about the true intentions of higher education institutions and the need for a regulatory body to aid in governing the practices of these universities as well as to support international students and advocate for their rights.

 

 

 

Globalization and Cultural Imperialism

Su, W. (2011). Resisting cultural imperialism, or welcoming cultural globalization? China’s extensive debate on Hollywood cinema from 1994 to 2007. Asian Journal of Communication, 21(2), pp.186-201. https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=0&sid=cee51ba8-fe80-495a-9d37-574bacc6fd1e%40sessionmgr4008

This reading focuses on cultural imperialism and the impact that the idea has had on the Chinese media market concerning Hollywood cinema in the period spanning 1994-2007. The author, Wendy Su, explains that

American Cultural supremacy is a result of global capitalism and cultural products like Hollywood films help colonize a global audience and help form a hegemonic culture, which has threatened and is threatening the existence of other cultures and the creation of alternative ways of life.”

The source fits into the literature in that it outlines the impact that cultural imperialism has had in the Chinese context and the struggles that the Chinese film market has had trying to compete with Hollywood and the Americanization of film. Su also outlines the issues that Cultural Imperialism has had, not only on the Chinese film industry, but also on the nation’s identity as a whole. The reading fits into the context of global media studies because it addresses problems that are facing a culture regarding the consumption of media in a way that threatens cultural heterogenization as a way of creating a new modern national identity.
This source could be used as a reference towards the ways in which globalization and Americanization of media has impacted cultures and national identities. This case is particularly interesting as it displays the ways in which cultural imperialism has managed to affect such a culture as ancient as China, and the internal conflicts that have arisen through the importation of foreign concepts of media. This source presents limitations in the manner that it focuses on only one particular culture and also appears to contain a small amount of bias.

 

Matos, C. (2012). ‘Globalization and the mass media’ In: Encyclopedia of Globalization. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470670590.wbeog369

This reading concerns the globalisation of mass media and offers a complex overview of all of the issues that evolve from having a particular culture represent and dominate the consumption of media in a global context. The article addresses theories concerning modernization in conjunction with globalisation through mass media. This source goes into depth about the historical context globalisation and cites numerous scholars and their theories which I believe is important and will be very useful when looking to reference other works concerning globalisation through mass media. The source also addresses homogenisation and hybridisation which are too significant factors surrounding the conversation around the positives and negatives of globalisation and this exploration will prove useful throughout the course of this subject. In terms of limitations, this article is from 2012 so it may not hold completely up to date or credible information. Overall I think that this source holds a very in depth analysis of everything that concerns globalisation and the theories within the overarching notion that enable a greater understanding of the concept.

 

 

 

Globalisation: Cultural Appreciation VS. Cultural Appropriation…

The ‘Small World’ ride at Disneyland.

It’s a small world after all…”

Global corporations such as; Disney, McDonalds, Apple, Cadbury and Levi’s are worldwide recognised brands and are distributed in almost every country on the planet, expanding their market way past their own national borders in order to culminate a massive profit.

It can be argued that globalisation started through the colonisation by European nations of new worlds such as America and Australia; and the opening of international trade routes through places such as China and Africa, which eliminated the restriction of resources to a nation by its borders.The concept of globalisation refers to the international community which has evolved as a result of advancements to communication technologies throughout history. The world has become a much more interconnected place since the time pre-dating the invention of the telephone in 1849.

Appadurai breaks globalisation down into five different ‘scapes‘, which include the: ethnoscape, technoscape, mediascape, ideoscape and finanscape.

Popular culture is a very important example of how globalisation has affected media and clearly shows how interdependent each of the five scapes is on each other in regards to the the causality of issues in the global community. This is demonstrated by the influence of important individuals within the industries surrounding music, fashion, film and art. As a result of the world becoming a more multicultural and integrated society through the growth of ethnoscapes, different cultures have risen up to a ‘trendy’ status. Indian, Japanese, African and Native American cultures have all been subject to appropriation by influential pop culture icons in recent years in order to accumulate ‘aesthetic‘.


Iggy Azalea
‘s music video to her single ‘Bounce’, has been criticised widely for the cultural appropriation which is evident in the overall theme of the production. Azalea, herself, is very problematic when it comes to appropriation of different cultures but the video in question is one of her biggest blunders. The video begins in Mumbai with Azalea straddling an Indian Elephant and then transitions into scenes of her clad in traditional Indian dress including a Sari and Bindi, with Indian women dancing in the background acting as nothing but props. Meanwhile the track itself has no relation to the culture which is being exploited and includes Azalea adopting a false southern African American accent which in itself is a problem.

The fact that Azalea has demonstrated no understanding of the history and traditions behind the culture which she is representing in her video is what makes it so disrespectful. When asked about her choice of aesthetic she explained the concept of Indian culture as ‘fantasy’ which is nothing but impudent.

Azalea is not alone in the appropriation of Indian culture. Selena Gomez did it with her video to ‘Come and Get it‘, and more recently, Major Lazer came close with ‘Lean On’. Other celebrities such as Katy Perry, Gwen Stefani and Kylie Jenner are all culprits of appropriation of Japanese, Egyptian and African cultures all in the name of aesthetic, and have received a significant amount of backlash for their actions.

This current trend of appropriating different cultures while showing a lack of understanding towards the meaning of the practices by such prominent figures is a product of globalisation in the media. The fact that the objects and traditions of certain cultures are seen as exotic, edgy and fashionable but the people of these societies are not recognised is where this concept becomes an issue. The way to combat this issue is to switch appropriation with appreciation and show an understanding of the culture rather than adopting certain aspects to create an aesthetic.

References:

http://www.skwirk.com/p-c_s-16_u-185_t-493_c-1812/nsw/geography/global-change/globalisation/the-process-of-globalisation

http://mediadiversified.org/2013/08/26/iggy-azalea-the-vmas2013-and-a-culture-of-appropriation/

https://unsettlingamerica.wordpress.com/2011/09/16/cultural-appreciation-or-cultural-appropriation/