The Idea Blog: Poverty

Upon reflecting on the potential topics listed for further individual investigation for this task, the subject involving ‘Poverty’ caught my curiosity. Without the luxury of context or an indication as to where exactly I could take this broad concept, I had to lean upon my own personal concerns regarding the topic in relation to communication and media. In doing so, I realised that it is apparent that there is a “Digital Divide” in Australia. This means that poor social and economic conditions limit access to communication technologies, which is an issue because those that have the most to gain from the resources that technologies such as the internet, provide – are at a disadvantage because they do not have the ability to access the benefits of media and communications technology. (Thomas, Wilson and Park, 2018) Instead of a digital economy designed for everyone, we appear to have created a highly stratified Internet, where the distribution of resources and opportunities online reflects Australia’s larger social and economic inequalities. The number of people using the Internet is not growing and the basic parameters of digital inequality in Australia – age, geography, education and income – continue to define access to and use of online resources. (Thomas, Wilson and Park, 2018)

Within this group of disadvantaged people, there is a further minority of which I will attempt to take a closer glimpse at in the context of this task. Indigenous Australians in remote communities suffer the most at the hands of this ‘Digital Divide’. Less than 77% of individuals in these remote Indigenous communities have access to Information Communication Technologies. However, despite the acknowledgement of a definite digital divide in the Australian Indigenous context, it is suggested by Carlson that the rapid advances in mobile technologies and the online environment have quickly been adapted by Aboriginal Youth (Carlson, 2013) in order to maintain their cultures, communicate and archive knowledge, empower their communities and develop skills to generate income in order to exit the poverty cycle. (Singleton, Rola-Rubzen, Muir & McGregor, 2009) She claims that social media acts as a vehicle for self-representation and provides an environment where personal identity can be tested and accepted and where a connection between the individual identity and collective Indigenous identity can develop. (Carlson, 2013)

In taking in all of the information that I have accumulated in regards to the issue of Communication and Media use by people who are impoverished, I have formulated a research question that focuses on a specific problem affecting a specific demographic:

 “Do people in remote Indigenous communities engage with social media in order to communicate their struggles with poverty and disadvantage?”

Communication technologies and social media can help Indigenous people in remote communities to mobilise resources, share information, and improve work related efficiency, improve educational outcomes, overcome remoteness and isolation, pursue recognition of rights to land and participation in negotiations with mining companies and government departments in order to negotiate and or reaffirm relationships that may be in tension with some of the longer standing traditional authority structures in their society. (Singleton, Rola-Rubzen, Muir & McGregor, 2009)

Building off of the claim that communication technologies provide the resources for disadvantaged people to potentially emancipate themselves from their position of detriment; it is discussed in “Youth Empowerment & Information Communication Technologies”, that media gives a voice to the voiceless. Having access to communication technologies aids in overcoming language and literacy barriers, facilitates intergenerational knowledge transfer, promotes empowerment and social participation which can lead to improvements in Indigenous health, education and economic development. Information Communication Technologies can also be a major tool for democratisation, advocacy and decentralisation for people living in remote Indigenous communities. (Singleton, Rola-Rubzen, Muir & McGregor, 2009).

Indigenous youth in rural and remote Australia utilise social media to air their thoughts and the cultural activities and concerns of their community. Social media as a ‘new frontier’ is where Aboriginal people are busy seeking new ways of representing and identifying themselves in a global amphitheatre. (Carlson, 2013) Empowerment is recognised as one of the three pillars of poverty reduction and this social political influence and ‘agency’ approach to empowerment suggests a shift of power to the powerless that allows them to bring their issues to the surface of the political, social and cultural agenda. (Singleton, Rola-Rubzen, Muir & McGregor, 2009) Aboriginal people are online and social media is a political site for Indigenous individuals to play out their struggles and identities. (Carlson, 2013) If the digital divide can be successfully combatted in the near future, potentially, Indigenous people from remote communities would benefit greatly as their ability to voice their struggles will be increased tenfold.


Carlson, B. (2013). The ‘new frontier’: Emergent Indigenous identities and social media. In M. Harris, M. Nakata & B. Carlson (Eds.), The Politics of Identity: Emerging Indigeneity (pp. 147-168). Sydney: University of Technology Sydney E-Press

Singleton, G., Rola-Rubzen, M., Muir, K., Muir, D. and McGregor, M. (2009). Youth empowerment and information and communication technologies: a case study of a remote Australian Aboriginal community. GeoJournal, 74(5), pp.403-413.

Thomas, J., Wilson, C. and Park, S. (2018). Australia’s digital divide is not going away. [online] The Conversation. Available at: [Accessed 15 Mar. 2019].




Kang, K. (2017). Hye Seung Chung and David Scott Diffrient, Movie Migrations: Transnational Genre Flows and South Korean Cinema. Film Criticism, [online] 41(3). Available at: [Accessed 24 Aug. 2018].

This article is a book review on a source that examines the South Korean film industry and the cultural influences that have an effect on the types of pieces that are being generated for public consumption. This article is heavily focussed on the terms that describe the class of South Korean film media:

“To capture the protean nature of Korean cinema, the authors prefer the term “migration” to “translation” or “hybridity,” underscoring the dialectical nature of Korean films, which trade on such hybrid processes as transmedia adaptation and implicate multiculturalism and globalization.”

Kang discusses the links that Hollywood film and American culture has had on influencing the South Korean entertainment industry and the way that this system of appropriation has acted as an escape or a band aid to the trauma that the South Korean population has endured in the past due to a complicated reality created by war and unrest in the region.
This source fits into the literature because it addresses the multifaceted nature of Korean cinema and the reasons why it is so unique and popular. I think that it will be useful to look at when discussing the influences of globalisation on the ways particular cultures present media and forge a national identity through this process. This source presents limitations in the way that it is only a review of a valuable source, so a lot of the information available is second hand which makes it complicated to get a complete grasp on what is being said in the article.


Tsaaior, J. (2018). “New” Nollywood video Films and the Post/Nationality of Nigeria’s Film Culture. Research in African Literatures, [online] 49(1), pp.145-162. Available at: [Accessed 20 Aug. 2018].

This article aims to explore the transformation that Nigerian film has endured since the 90’s and the improvement and global recognition that the genre has received in recent years.

This article goes into depth about the conversation surrounding nationalism and what constitutes a nation as well as the cultural values that go along with this concept. Nigeria is a nation that has struggled in the past with promoting the character of its country and “Nollywood” has been an effective means to boost Nigeria’s national identity and have their art and cultural scene be displayed in a global context. Nigerian cinema has been used as a Segway into talking about national identities and culture has helped the Nigerian population find pride and belonging within their nation. This source is useful when looking at the ways media plays an important role in the formation of individual and national identity.

This is an up to date source from 2018, which increases its credibility and makes it very useful when looking at film culture from different nationalities. This article is also very comprehensive so it is very useful in gaining a thorough and informed perspective on the subject at hand.

BCM111: Internationalising Higher Education

Healey, N. (2007). Is higher education in really ‘internationalising’?. Higher Education, [online] 55(3), pp.333-355. Available at: [Accessed 23 Aug. 2018].


This source talks about the business of internationalising higher education and how universities are using globalisation as a way of increasing profits from international students as well as setting up campuses in foreign countries. The article outlines how tertiary education is following suit of the business sector in globalising as a result of advances in information and communication technologies. The fact that English is slowly becoming the most homogenous language in the world means that western universities can capitalise from opening up courses to international students. The article outlines the specific ways in which higher education is internationalising and the drivers behind a universities choice to internationalise. The article compares various regions to each in other in terms of the success of the programs. This article lacks in terms of describing the lived experiences of students who have participated in international higher education as it mostly focuses on the business and drive behind the decisions to participate in the internationalisation process. Another limitation with this article is that it was published over 10 years ago in 2007, which means that the information available is not current.



Nyland, C., Forbes-Mewett, H. and Härtel, C. (2013). Governing the International Student Experience: Lessons From the Australian International Education Model. Academy of Management Learning & Education, [online] 12(4), pp.656-673. Available at: [Accessed 23 Aug. 2018].


This source concerns the actual governing of the student experience of international higher education in the case of Australia and was published in 2013. This article tends to fill in the blanks that were missed out in the previous article and is mainly focused on the experiences of international students so using the two together helps to build a broader picture of the overall topic. This article is concerned with the issue of higher education being commercialized and the students have been looked at as consumers to further the profits of universities in Australia rather than scholars looking to broaden their perspectives in a foreign environment. This article goes into detail about the experiences international students had in Australia concerning; finances and healthcare, housing, safety and supportive infrastructure and the ways in which international students provided backlash to the Australian industry. The article provides a list of recommendations for other countries to employ if they wish to avoid the outcome of the Australian case. This source will prove useful in this course as it offers a perspective of internationalising higher education that paints the idea in a negative light and I believe it is important to gather different sources providing different view points. The article is easy to read and was published by scholars from two different Australian universities so the amount of bias seems to be minimised. I think that the key outtakes of this article are very important as they encourage the reader to think critically about the true intentions of higher education institutions and the need for a regulatory body to aid in governing the practices of these universities as well as to support international students and advocate for their rights.




Globalization and Cultural Imperialism

Su, W. (2011). Resisting cultural imperialism, or welcoming cultural globalization? China’s extensive debate on Hollywood cinema from 1994 to 2007. Asian Journal of Communication, 21(2), pp.186-201.

This reading focuses on cultural imperialism and the impact that the idea has had on the Chinese media market concerning Hollywood cinema in the period spanning 1994-2007. The author, Wendy Su, explains that

American Cultural supremacy is a result of global capitalism and cultural products like Hollywood films help colonize a global audience and help form a hegemonic culture, which has threatened and is threatening the existence of other cultures and the creation of alternative ways of life.”

The source fits into the literature in that it outlines the impact that cultural imperialism has had in the Chinese context and the struggles that the Chinese film market has had trying to compete with Hollywood and the Americanization of film. Su also outlines the issues that Cultural Imperialism has had, not only on the Chinese film industry, but also on the nation’s identity as a whole. The reading fits into the context of global media studies because it addresses problems that are facing a culture regarding the consumption of media in a way that threatens cultural heterogenization as a way of creating a new modern national identity.
This source could be used as a reference towards the ways in which globalization and Americanization of media has impacted cultures and national identities. This case is particularly interesting as it displays the ways in which cultural imperialism has managed to affect such a culture as ancient as China, and the internal conflicts that have arisen through the importation of foreign concepts of media. This source presents limitations in the manner that it focuses on only one particular culture and also appears to contain a small amount of bias.


Matos, C. (2012). ‘Globalization and the mass media’ In: Encyclopedia of Globalization. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

This reading concerns the globalisation of mass media and offers a complex overview of all of the issues that evolve from having a particular culture represent and dominate the consumption of media in a global context. The article addresses theories concerning modernization in conjunction with globalisation through mass media. This source goes into depth about the historical context globalisation and cites numerous scholars and their theories which I believe is important and will be very useful when looking to reference other works concerning globalisation through mass media. The source also addresses homogenisation and hybridisation which are too significant factors surrounding the conversation around the positives and negatives of globalisation and this exploration will prove useful throughout the course of this subject. In terms of limitations, this article is from 2012 so it may not hold completely up to date or credible information. Overall I think that this source holds a very in depth analysis of everything that concerns globalisation and the theories within the overarching notion that enable a greater understanding of the concept.




Date Night: Cinemas – ‘Strangers in Public’

When we were given the task of planning a trip to the cinemas for this week’s blog post, I was quietly stoked and immediately began to plan the evening. I could do this a number of different ways; I could talk about the weekend before when I went to see ‘Baby Driver’ with my 13 year old niece at Event Cinemas in Miranda, I could make a special trip just for the purpose of this study OR I could do neither and choose to interview somebody older about their experiences with Cinema going in the past. Considering that the logistics of a trip to the movies was what we were actually focussing on, I decided to make it interesting and plan to go back to my home town of Taree, and have a nice night out with my friends, and make the whole thing really worth it’s while.

I will go through the actions of planning my cinema trip by looking at Hagerstrand’s three constraints that limit people in their daily activities. Firstly, I had to work out if I had time to make the trip back home, so I had to look at my work and uni schedule’s to find a good time to do this. This process related to the coupling constraint which involves restrictions surrounding allocation of time and institutional logistics.  Once that was sorted I made the 4 hour drive to Taree only to find that there was nothing on at the local cinemas that appealed to me. My choices involved ‘IT’, (I am not a fan of thrillers or anything remotely scary), ‘Victoria and Abdul’ (I probably could have dealt with this but nobody else in my company was interested), ‘Logan Lucky’ (I can’t handle Channing Tatum for some reason, so this was out of the question) or ‘Emoji Movie’ (do I really need to explain why I refuse to watch this movie). This dilemma, I will also put down to a coupling constraint, being that myself and my friends could not decide on a film to see.

I decided to not stress about the lack of film situation for a few days because I figured that if worse came to worse we could drive out to Forster, the nearest town to Taree that had a wider selection of films, and watch ‘Dunkirk’ (I had already been to the movies twice to see this film, but I enjoyed it so much that I definitely wouldn’t have minded going for round 3). Before I knew it, however, it was my last day at home before I had to travel back to Sydney and I STILL hadn’t been to the movies! I went out for dinner with my mum on my last night and she suggested having another look at what was showing at Fay’s (the local cinema) before I went home. She said that she wouldn’t mind watching ‘IT’ as she wanted to compare it to the original movie, I still wasn’t overly keen but at this point I didn’t really have any other choice if I didn’t want to write about a failed experience. But it seems that it was never to be, because the only available showing was at 8:40, meaning that the film wouldn’t finish until after 11pm and I still had to spend 4 hours driving home that night. This related to Hagerstrand’s Capability constraint which applies to limits on human movement due to physical or biological needs such as the need to sleep which applied to me in this situation.

I have never in my life had a movie date go so awry, but I put it down to the lack of spontaneity involved in this particular instance. Looking at Hagerstrand’s three constraints on daily activities made me think about all of this different things that need to fall into place to make a trip to the movies successful.

Research Pitch: Past Vs. Present Media Use at Live Events

To what extent has the impact of modern media use influenced the ways in which we experience Live Events?

For as long as I have been going to Concerts and Live Events, there have been digital cameras or phones, to capture the moments and memories of what is taking place at that point in time. I went to my first concert with my older sisters in 2008, it was Chris Brown and Rihanna (before the whole domestic violence debacle) and I remember them texting on their phones, taking pictures with their digital cameras (the weapon of choice for getting that prime pic) and updating their Myspace profiles with dark, blurry photos taken from the nosebleed section. I can recall being annoyed that they weren’t paying full attention to the concert, but then calming down at the thought of having photographic evidence of such a cool experience to show my friends at primary school the next week. When I attend concerts now, I always catch myself whipping out my iPhone in order to catch a video of my favourite song to send to all of my friends or put it onto my SnapChat story – but every single time I get so frustrated with myself for fussing with my phone and not just enjoying the moment that I have spent a lot of time and money in order to be in.

When thinking about topics to research that would reflect the relationship that media has in space and the impact this can have on the way people interact with real life experiences, I immediately thought of that time in 2008, and consequently, every other concert I attended after it, because I have never been able to fully work out why it is that people, including myself I’ll shamefully admit, would rather spend the majority of their time watching a Live event through a device.

In Week 2 of this subject we participated in an ethnographic exercise, discussing television memories with older consultants, gaining an insight into the parts that media and technology have played throughout the course of history. I thoroughly enjoyed this research method and I intend to use it throughout the course of my investigation into the reasons and ways that people engage with media at live events. I would also like to incorporate traditional research techniques such as Surveys and perhaps even conduct a focus group if time allows.

In terms of defining a demographic for my research, I have come across a slight difficulty. My problem is that I would like to interview people from past generations and gain their perspective on engaging in live entertainment without the interference of modern media use and then compare it to the experience of attending a concert today. To do this I will need to consult individuals who have both had the benefit of attending concerts prior to the release of technology such as smartphones, tablets and digital cameras, and the luxury to do so in a modern or current context. I would also like to consult people from my own generation who have only ever known a time where instead of being told to “put your lighters in the air”, it’s been a polite request to “turn your phone’s onto flash”.




Ethnography & Collaborative Research

Luke Lassiter defines Collaborative Ethnography as a process that “moves collaboration from it’s taken-for-granted background and positions it on centre stage… it invites commentary from our consultants and seeks to make that commentary overtly part of the ethnographic text.” (Lassiter, 2005) Last week we were tasked with the activity of blogging about past generation’s memories’ of television, this proved to be a very good way to experiment with ethnography as a collaborative learning practice and I enjoyed the experience a lot.

I chose to have a discussion with my mother about her experiences with television during the 60’s, she lives five hours away from me on the Mid North Coast, so in order to conduct my interview I had to FaceTime her. There were a few distractions through approaching the conversation in this manner, such as her internet connection not handling the nature of the call, my dog barking in the background, my sister asking questions about what we were doing etc. but for the most part, we got through it and it was nice to spend time asking her about her life as I did not know it. In this situation it is also rewarding to see that the consultant enjoys sharing their experiences and having an input into the research that is being conducted. My mum didn’t have anything all that exciting to put forth, but she enjoyed speaking about her childhood home and letting me know about the ways that she connected with media during that time in her life.

In reading other people’s blog posts about this topic, it was very interesting to learn about all of the varying individual experiences, but what was also interesting was reading about all of the similarities. Many people interviewed their parents, who hailed from the same baby boomer generation as my own mother, and their stories and comments on the ways television dictated family life as well as the types of programmes that were watched, all lined up with what I discovered through my own ethnographic research. I found that a few other bloggers also found that their consultants did not have any real deep emotional connection to their television memories, because by the 60’s and 70’s, Tv had already been established as a normal part of home life.  Those who were lucky enough to interview grandparents and others from that older generation, were met with much more engaging stories surrounding the wonder of technology and the real impact it had on shifting the dynamics of the world.

Ethnographic collaboration as a research practice works well because it has the benefit of gaining a real and honest account of an individual’s experience, compared to traditional quantitative methods of measuring media use, which have the potential to produce generalised results that don’t accurately represent the diversity that genuinely occurs with media use in the home. When a comfortable relationship is built between consultant and researcher, conversation flows easily and the research process becomes memorable. The weaknesses of collaborative ethnography lie in the nature of the conversations being had, as the personal experiences being shared may cause privacy issues that lead to consultants not wanting their information shared in the great detail it has been provided.


Lassiter, L E 2005, ‘Defining a Collaborative Ethnography’, An excerpt from The Chicago Guide to Collaborative Ethnography, viewed 17 August 2017,